Common HOA Disputes and Resolution Processes

Homeowners’ Association (HOA) disputes are common in community living. Resolving them efficiently is crucial for maintaining harmony.

I will provide advice and tips on the following:

  • Definitions of common HOA disputes and resolution processes
  • Step-by-step guides on internal dispute resolution procedures
  • Information on alternative dispute resolution (ADR), including mediation and arbitration
  • Legal requirements and state-specific legislation
  • Tips and best practices for effective communication and conflict management

As a real estate agent with extensive experience in condo sales and as a condo owner, I know it’s vital to understand potential HOA disagreements and how to deal with them.

One of the benefits of a HOA is having rules in place for a swift resolution.

Let’s examine the details.

Common HOA disputes and resolution processes

Common HOA troubles

  1. Rule violations: Homeowners often disagree on compliance with HOA rules and regulations. Examples include improper landscaping, unauthorized changes to property exteriors and parking regulations violations. These disputes can create friction between neighbors, homeowners and the HOA board.
  2. Maintenance issues: Disputes over responsibility for repairs and upkeep. Common issues include disagreements over who should maintain shared spaces, repair damaged common areas, or handle pest control. These conflicts can impact the overall appearance and functionality of the community.
  3. Financial disagreements: Conflicts about HOA dues, assessments and budget allocations. Homeowners may challenge fee increases, special assessments for unexpected expenses, or how the HOA allocates its budget. These disputes can lead to distrust and resistance from homeowners. HOA fees have several pros and cons, including the fact that they are sometimes not in unison with the community.
  4. Architectural changes: Homeowners may clash with the HOA over property alterations. Typical disputes involve homeowners wanting to paint their homes a different color, build fences, or add structures that the HOA has not approved. These conflicts often arise from differing interpretations of the HOA’s architectural guidelines.
  5. Noise complaints are disputes arising from noise disturbances within the community. Examples include loud parties, barking dogs, or noisy construction. If not addressed promptly and fairly, these conflicts can lead to ongoing tension between neighbors.

Resolution processes

  1. Internal dispute resolution (IDR): HOA uses its processes to resolve internal conflicts. This typically involves reviewing the community’s governing documents, holding meetings with involved parties and attempting to mediate a resolution before escalating to legal action.
  2. Alternative dispute resolution (ADR): External methods like mediation and arbitration help resolve disputes without litigation. These processes involve neutral third parties facilitating discussions and making fair decisions for all involved.
  3. Legal action: Court involvement is the last resort when other methods fail. This can involve filing lawsuits, attending court hearings and receiving legally binding judgments. Legal action is typically costly and time-consuming, making it less desirable than other resolution methods. Legal action usually takes place when HOA rules are unenforceable and illegal.

Step-by-step guides on internal dispute resolution procedures

Internal dispute resolution (IDR)

  1. Review HOA guidelines: Ensure understanding of the rules and procedures for dispute resolution. Homeowners should familiarize themselves with the HOA’s governing documents, including bylaws, CC&Rs (Covenants, Conditions and Restrictions) and dispute resolution policies.
  2. Submit a written complaint: Document and submit the issue to the HOA board. Include all relevant details, such as dates, times, involved parties and supporting evidence, such as photographs or witness statements.
  3. Initial meeting: Arrange a meeting between the involved parties and a board representative. This initial discussion aims to clarify the issues and explore potential solutions. Both sides should be prepared to present their viewpoints and listen to each other.
  4. Mediation session: Facilitate a discussion to reach a mutual agreement. If the initial meeting does not resolve the issue, a more formal mediation session may be necessary. This session can involve a neutral third-party mediator to help guide the conversation and find common ground.
  5. Board Decision: If mediation fails, the board reviews the case and decides. The board’s decision should be based on the community’s governing documents and the facts presented during the mediation session.
  6. Appeal Process: Homeowners can appeal the decision if they believe it is unfair. The appeal process typically involves presenting the case to a higher authority within the HOA or requesting a review by an independent committee.

Alternative dispute resolution (ADR)


  1. Selection of mediator: Both sides should agree upon a neutral third party. The mediator should be experienced in handling HOA disputes and be perceived as impartial by all parties involved.
  2. Mediation session: The mediator facilitates a conversation to help parties reach a voluntary agreement. The session involves each party presenting their side of the dispute, followed by the mediator guiding the discussion towards a mutually acceptable resolution.
  3. Resolution agreement: If successful, the mediator drafts an agreement for both parties to sign. This agreement outlines the resolution’s terms and each party’s responsibilities. Both sides must adhere to the agreement to prevent future conflicts.


  1. Selection of arbitrator: Both parties select a neutral arbitrator to hear the case. The arbitrator should have expertise in HOA law, which both parties should agree upon to ensure impartiality.
  2. Arbitration hearing: Each side presents their case to the arbitrator. This process is more formal than mediation and resembles a court proceeding, with both parties presenting evidence and making arguments.
  3. Arbitration decision: The arbitrator makes a binding decision based on the evidence. This decision is final and enforceable, meaning both parties must comply with the arbitrator’s ruling.

Legal requirements and state-specific legislation

Legal requirements

  1. HOA bylaws: Review and comply with the condo association’s governing documents. These bylaws outline the rules and procedures for dispute resolution, including any requirements for submitting complaints and appealing decisions.
  2. State laws: Familiarize with state laws governing HOAs and dispute resolution. Each state has specific legislation that regulates HOA operations, including how disputes should be handled.
  3. Federal regulations: Ensure compliance with federal laws affecting HOAs. This includes laws related to fair housing, accessibility and other federal regulations that may impact HOA governance.

State-specific legislation

  1. California: The Davis-Stirling Act regulates HOA dispute resolutions. This comprehensive law outlines the rights and responsibilities of HOAs and homeowners, including specific procedures for resolving disputes.
  2. Florida: Florida Statutes, Chapter 720, outlines HOA responsibilities and dispute procedures. This legislation provides detailed guidance on how HOAs should handle disputes, including requirements for internal resolution processes and ADR.
  3. Texas: Texas Property Code, Chapter 209, governs HOAs and dispute resolutions. This law sets forth the procedures for resolving disputes within HOAs, including requirements for notice, hearings and appeals.

Tips and best practices for effective communication and conflict management

  1. Open communication: Encourage transparent and honest dialogue between homeowners and the HOA. Regularly update the community on important issues and decisions to prevent misunderstandings and build trust.
  2. Active listening: Ensure all parties feel heard and understood during discussions. This involves listening without interrupting, acknowledging others’ viewpoints and responding thoughtfully.
  3. Documentation: Keep detailed records of all communications and resolutions. Documenting interactions helps ensure transparency and accountability, providing a clear record in case of future disputes.
  4. Neutral language: To reduce tension, use neutral, non-confrontational language. Avoid accusatory or inflammatory statements and focus on facts and solutions rather than blame.
  5. Seek professional help: Engage mediators or legal experts when necessary. Professional assistance can provide valuable guidance and help navigate complex disputes, ensuring fair and effective resolutions.


Effective dispute resolution in HOAs requires transparent processes and open communication.

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